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栈、队列java实现

下压栈

特点

能动态调整数组大小的实现

实现

package edu.princeton.cs.algs4;

import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.NoSuchElementException;

public class ResizingArrayStack<Item> implements Iterable<Item> {
    private Item[] a;         // array of items
    private int n;            // number of elements on stack


    /**
     * Initializes an empty stack.
     */
    public ResizingArrayStack() {
        a = (Item[]) new Object[2];
        n = 0;
    }

    /**
     * Is this stack empty?
     * @return true if this stack is empty; false otherwise
     */
    public boolean isEmpty() {
        return n == 0;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of items in the stack.
     * @return the number of items in the stack
     */
    public int size() {
        return n;
    }


    // resize the underlying array holding the elements
    private void resize(int capacity) {
        assert capacity >= n;

        // textbook implementation
        Item[] temp = (Item[]) new Object[capacity];
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            temp[i] = a[i];
        }
        a = temp;

       // alternative implementation
       // a = java.util.Arrays.copyOf(a, capacity);
    }



    /**
     * Adds the item to this stack.
     * @param item the item to add
     */
    public void push(Item item) {
        if (n == a.length) resize(2*a.length);    // double size of array if necessary
        a[n++] = item;                            // add item
    }

    /**
     * Removes and returns the item most recently added to this stack.
     * @return the item most recently added
     * @throws java.util.NoSuchElementException if this stack is empty
     */
    public Item pop() {
        if (isEmpty()) throw new NoSuchElementException("Stack underflow");
        Item item = a[n-1];
        a[n-1] = null;                              // to avoid loitering
        n--;
        // shrink size of array if necessary
        if (n > 0 && n == a.length/4) resize(a.length/2);
        return item;
    }


    /**
     * Returns (but does not remove) the item most recently added to this stack.
     * @return the item most recently added to this stack
     * @throws java.util.NoSuchElementException if this stack is empty
     */
    public Item peek() {
        if (isEmpty()) throw new NoSuchElementException("Stack underflow");
        return a[n-1];
    }

    /**
     * Returns an iterator to this stack that iterates through the items in LIFO order.
     * @return an iterator to this stack that iterates through the items in LIFO order.
     */
    public Iterator<Item> iterator() {
        return new ReverseArrayIterator();
    }

    // an iterator, doesn't implement remove() since it's optional
    private class ReverseArrayIterator implements Iterator<Item> {
        private int i;

        public ReverseArrayIterator() {
            i = n-1;
        }

        public boolean hasNext() {
            return i >= 0;
        }

        public void remove() {
            throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
        }

        public Item next() {
            if (!hasNext()) throw new NoSuchElementException();
            return a[i--];
        }
    }


    /**
     * Unit tests the {@code Stack} data type.
     *
     * @param args the command-line arguments
     */
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        ResizingArrayStack<String> stack = new ResizingArrayStack<String>();
        while (!StdIn.isEmpty()) {
            String item = StdIn.readString();
            if (!item.equals("-")) stack.push(item);
            else if (!stack.isEmpty()) StdOut.print(stack.pop() + " ");
        }
        StdOut.println("(" + stack.size() + " left on stack)");
    }
}

下压堆栈(链表实现)

package edu.princeton.cs.algs4;

import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.NoSuchElementException;

public class Stack<Item> implements Iterable<Item> {
    private Node<Item> first;     // top of stack
    private int n;                // size of the stack

    // helper linked list class
    private static class Node<Item> {
        private Item item;
        private Node<Item> next;
    }

    /**
     * Initializes an empty stack.
     */
    public Stack() {
        first = null;
        n = 0;
    }

    /**
     * Returns true if this stack is empty.
     *
     * @return true if this stack is empty; false otherwise
     */
    public boolean isEmpty() {
        return first == null;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of items in this stack.
     *
     * @return the number of items in this stack
     */
    public int size() {
        return n;
    }

    /**
     * Adds the item to this stack.
     *
     * @param  item the item to add
     */
    public void push(Item item) {
        Node<Item> oldfirst = first;
        first = new Node<Item>();
        first.item = item;
        first.next = oldfirst;
        n++;
    }

    /**
     * Removes and returns the item most recently added to this stack.
     *
     * @return the item most recently added
     * @throws NoSuchElementException if this stack is empty
     */
    public Item pop() {
        if (isEmpty()) throw new NoSuchElementException("Stack underflow");
        Item item = first.item;        // save item to return
        first = first.next;            // delete first node
        n--;
        return item;                   // return the saved item
    }


    /**
     * Returns (but does not remove) the item most recently added to this stack.
     *
     * @return the item most recently added to this stack
     * @throws NoSuchElementException if this stack is empty
     */
    public Item peek() {
        if (isEmpty()) throw new NoSuchElementException("Stack underflow");
        return first.item;
    }

    /**
     * Returns a string representation of this stack.
     *
     * @return the sequence of items in this stack in LIFO order, separated by spaces
     */
    public String toString() {
        StringBuilder s = new StringBuilder();
        for (Item item : this) {
            s.append(item);
            s.append(' ');
        }
        return s.toString();
    }
       

    /**
     * Returns an iterator to this stack that iterates through the items in LIFO order.
     *
     * @return an iterator to this stack that iterates through the items in LIFO order
     */
    public Iterator<Item> iterator() {
        return new ListIterator<Item>(first);
    }

    // an iterator, doesn't implement remove() since it's optional
    private class ListIterator<Item> implements Iterator<Item> {
        private Node<Item> current;

        public ListIterator(Node<Item> first) {
            current = first;
        }

        public boolean hasNext() {
            return current != null;
        }

        public void remove() {
            throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
        }

        public Item next() {
            if (!hasNext()) throw new NoSuchElementException();
            Item item = current.item;
            current = current.next; 
            return item;
        }
    }


    /**
     * Unit tests the {@code Stack} data type.
     *
     * @param args the command-line arguments
     */
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Stack<String> stack = new Stack<String>();
        while (!StdIn.isEmpty()) {
            String item = StdIn.readString();
            if (!item.equals("-"))
                stack.push(item);
            else if (!stack.isEmpty())
                StdOut.print(stack.pop() + " ");
        }
        StdOut.println("(" + stack.size() + " left on stack)");
    }
}

先进先出队列

package edu.princeton.cs.algs4;

import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.NoSuchElementException;
public class Queue<Item> implements Iterable<Item> {
    private Node<Item> first;    // beginning of queue
    private Node<Item> last;     // end of queue
    private int n;               // number of elements on queue

    // helper linked list class
    private static class Node<Item> {
        private Item item;
        private Node<Item> next;
    }

    /**
     * Initializes an empty queue.
     */
    public Queue() {
        first = null;
        last  = null;
        n = 0;
    }

    /**
     * Returns true if this queue is empty.
     *
     * @return {@code true} if this queue is empty; {@code false} otherwise
     */
    public boolean isEmpty() {
        return first == null;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of items in this queue.
     *
     * @return the number of items in this queue
     */
    public int size() {
        return n;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the item least recently added to this queue.
     *
     * @return the item least recently added to this queue
     * @throws NoSuchElementException if this queue is empty
     */
    public Item peek() {
        if (isEmpty()) throw new NoSuchElementException("Queue underflow");
        return first.item;
    }

    /**
     * Adds the item to this queue.
     *
     * @param  item the item to add
     */
    public void enqueue(Item item) {
        Node<Item> oldlast = last;
        last = new Node<Item>();
        last.item = item;
        last.next = null;
        if (isEmpty()) first = last;
        else           oldlast.next = last;
        n++;
    }

    /**
     * Removes and returns the item on this queue that was least recently added.
     *
     * @return the item on this queue that was least recently added
     * @throws NoSuchElementException if this queue is empty
     */
    public Item dequeue() {
        if (isEmpty()) throw new NoSuchElementException("Queue underflow");
        Item item = first.item;
        first = first.next;
        n--;
        if (isEmpty()) last = null;   // to avoid loitering
        return item;
    }

    /**
     * Returns a string representation of this queue.
     *
     * @return the sequence of items in FIFO order, separated by spaces
     */
    public String toString() {
        StringBuilder s = new StringBuilder();
        for (Item item : this) {
            s.append(item);
            s.append(' ');
        }
        return s.toString();
    } 

    /**
     * Returns an iterator that iterates over the items in this queue in FIFO order.
     *
     * @return an iterator that iterates over the items in this queue in FIFO order
     */
    public Iterator<Item> iterator()  {
        return new ListIterator<Item>(first);  
    }

    // an iterator, doesn't implement remove() since it's optional
    private class ListIterator<Item> implements Iterator<Item> {
        private Node<Item> current;

        public ListIterator(Node<Item> first) {
            current = first;
        }

        public boolean hasNext()  { return current != null;                     }
        public void remove()      { throw new UnsupportedOperationException();  }

        public Item next() {
            if (!hasNext()) throw new NoSuchElementException();
            Item item = current.item;
            current = current.next; 
            return item;
        }
    }


    /**
     * Unit tests the {@code Queue} data type.
     *
     * @param args the command-line arguments
     */
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Queue<String> queue = new Queue<String>();
        while (!StdIn.isEmpty()) {
            String item = StdIn.readString();
            if (!item.equals("-"))
                queue.enqueue(item);
            else if (!queue.isEmpty())
                StdOut.print(queue.dequeue() + " ");
        }
        StdOut.println("(" + queue.size() + " left on queue)");
    }
}

背包

package edu.princeton.cs.algs4;

import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.NoSuchElementException;

public class Bag<Item> implements Iterable<Item> {
    private Node<Item> first;    // beginning of bag
    private int n;               // number of elements in bag

    // helper linked list class
    private static class Node<Item> {
        private Item item;
        private Node<Item> next;
    }

    /**
     * Initializes an empty bag.
     */
    public Bag() {
        first = null;
        n = 0;
    }

    /**
     * Returns true if this bag is empty.
     *
     * @return {@code true} if this bag is empty;
     *         {@code false} otherwise
     */
    public boolean isEmpty() {
        return first == null;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of items in this bag.
     *
     * @return the number of items in this bag
     */
    public int size() {
        return n;
    }

    /**
     * Adds the item to this bag.
     *
     * @param  item the item to add to this bag
     */
    public void add(Item item) {
        Node<Item> oldfirst = first;
        first = new Node<Item>();
        first.item = item;
        first.next = oldfirst;
        n++;
    }


    /**
     * Returns an iterator that iterates over the items in this bag in arbitrary order.
     *
     * @return an iterator that iterates over the items in this bag in arbitrary order
     */
    public Iterator<Item> iterator()  {
        return new ListIterator<Item>(first);  
    }

    // an iterator, doesn't implement remove() since it's optional
    private class ListIterator<Item> implements Iterator<Item> {
        private Node<Item> current;

        public ListIterator(Node<Item> first) {
            current = first;
        }

        public boolean hasNext()  { return current != null;                     }
        public void remove()      { throw new UnsupportedOperationException();  }

        public Item next() {
            if (!hasNext()) throw new NoSuchElementException();
            Item item = current.item;
            current = current.next; 
            return item;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Unit tests the {@code Bag} data type.
     *
     * @param args the command-line arguments
     */
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Bag<String> bag = new Bag<String>();
        while (!StdIn.isEmpty()) {
            String item = StdIn.readString();
            bag.add(item);
        }

        StdOut.println("size of bag = " + bag.size());
        for (String s : bag) {
            StdOut.println(s);
        }
    }

}

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